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Glass and glass units

Glass and glass units

What is glass unit?

A glass unit is a special construction made of two or more glass panels placed within a distance from one another using a spacer. The space in between is filled with air or inert gas and is hermetically sealed around the edges.

Structure of the glass unit


1. Glass – 4,5,6 mm

2. Hermetically sealed chamber in between the glass panels

3. Spacer

4. Hydroscopic absorbent

5. Double sided patch 3M

6. Coiled with K + D (vulcanization)

The thickness and type of glass depends and this results in difference in the insulation qualities of the window
The thickness could be 4,5,6mm and the type could be regular (white) glass, toned or triplex (enforced glass against burglary and damage protection)
In a well made glass unit cannot enter water from the outside and the moisture trapped inside with the air during the fabrication process is processed by filling of the spacer.
That way there is no way for condensation to form between the glass panels.


The glass units takes almost the entire surface of the window – almost 80%.
According to experts about 85% of the heat expenditures of every window are between the glass panels. A very little percent is because of the framing. That is why the correct choice when buying glass is very important for bettering the heat control in every household.
Energy efficient windows means intelligent and practical regulating of the energy current inside buildings. This is a key factor in a state of economical crisis and constantly rising electrical bills.
Energy efficient glass has a low solar factor, high light permeability, high selectivity.

aksesoar-staklopaketThe basic insulation characteristics of the glass unit are determined by the following parameters:

Ug – value of heat transferred through the glass. The lowest this value is, the bigger are your savings on electrical bills.
Rw – noise proofing – the Rw index measures noise cancellation in the glass unit. The better the value, the better the noise proofing.
Glass composition – the combination of glass panels with different thickness (ex 5+4mm) leads to better softening of the resonance vibrations.
Width of the gas chamber – the bigger the distance between the glass panels the better the soundproofing gets. It shouldn’t be overlooked however that there is an optimal spacing and increasing it too much will lead to poor performance.
UV – passage of harmful UV rays leading to pale paint and skin cancer.
Sf – solar factor – the total value of sun energy passing through the glass
TI – Light passage

The geographical location of the building is very important. It is important to know the climate the intensity of sunlight so a correct choice of glass can be made

For bettering these parameters it is necessary to use low emission and high energy glass when constructing the panels.

Low emission glass?

Low emission glass is high quality glass with hard or soft covering on one of the shallow sides. In order to be effective it must be placed on the inside of the window because the protective layer is placed facing the air chamber formed by the two glass panels.
The covering allows short wave sun energy to enter the building but thanks to high reflectory qualities in the infrared specter it acts as a wall for leaking precious long wave energy.
That way heat losses are blocked , bills are lowered and the investment from installing high quality windows is returned quickly. The glass units made using low emission glass lower heat loss, better insulation and reduce to a minimum the chance of condensation. They have better energy efficiency and save up to 40% from the heating expenses during the winter season.
Suitable for rooms facing north. The conclusion that follows is that the glass unit with K-glass is almost 2 times better as an insulator than the regular glass unit.

What is Sunergy glass?

Sunergy is a high energy and multifunctional glass from the newest generation, combining solar control and thermal insulation, neutrality and low reflection.

The silver based magnetron covering allows it to score perfect results with sun protection, optimal transparency and better insulation.

Thanks to the latest developments of the Sunergy lab the results are astounding during the winter as well as the summer.

The high energy glass has a few main advantages:

  • full year round climate comfort
  • optimized sun protection
  • exception thermal insulation
  • almost colorless
  • combines high quality insulation and sunray control and transparency
  • allows for big windows without worrying about being too dependent on the season.
  • Sunergy glass performs equally well on both sides, across all seasons.
  • Therefore the name = 4 season glass

Glass Units

Single white glass

  • Size (mm) – 4
  • Ug(W/m2K) – 55.8
  • Ug(W/m2K) argon gas- x
  • Rw(dB) soundproofing – 23
  • UV (%) – 69.3
  • Solar factor(%) – 86.3
  • Light permeability (%) – 89.7


  • Size(mm) – 4-16-4
  • Ug(W/m2K) – 2.7
  • Ug(W/m2K) argon gas – 2.6
  • Rw(dB) soundproofing – 30
  • UV (%) – 59.4
  • Solar factor(%) – 79.5
  • Light permeability (%) – 82.9

White/Low emission

  • Size(mm) – 4-16-4
  • Ug(W/m2K) – 1.40
  • Ug(W/m2K) argon gas – 1.10
  • Rw(dB) soundproofing – 30
  • UV (%) – 35
  • Solar factor(%) – 62.9
  • Light permeability (%) – 80.1

High emission/Laminated

  • Size(mm) – 4-16-4
  • Ug(W/m2K) – 1.40
  • Ug(W/m2K) argon gas – 1.10
  • Rw(dB) soundproofing – 35
  • UV (%) – 2.7
  • Solar factor(%) – 42.3
  • Light permeability (%) – 66.4

High emission/White

  • Size(mm) – 4-16-4
  • Ug(W/m2K) – 1.30
  • Ug(W/m2K) argon gas- 1.10
  • Rw(dB) soundproofing – 30
  • UV (%) – 25.7
  • Solar factor(%) – 42.5
  • Light permeability (%) – 66.9

High emission/White/Low emission

  • Size(mm) – 4-11-6-11-4
  • Ug(W/m2K) – 1.0
  • Ug(W/m2K) argon gas – 0.8
  • Rw(dB) soundproof – 35
  • UV (%) – 14.9
  • Solar factor(%) – 38
  • Light permeability (%) – 59.2

High emission/White/Low emission

  • Size(mm) – 4-18-5-20-4
  • Ug(W/m2K) – 0.7
  • Ug(W/m2K) argon gas – 0.8
  • Rw(dB) soundproof – 35
  • UV (%) – 15.0
  • Solar factor (%) – 38.1
  • Light permeability (%) – 59.4

Are the glass units important?

Imagine a 2,5m x 1,5m window. What part of it is the profile and what the glass unit? In most cases the profile is not larger than 20% of the whole window. So if you order an expensive profile and put a regular glass unit 24mm you will better your insulation with just a fifth of its potential. The smartest choice of course is a good profile with a thick glass unit with K – glass. The good news is that if you invest only in the glass unit you will get astounding results at moderate cost. Conclusion – the most expensive glass unit does a lot more work than the most expensive profile.

Does the glass depth matters for noise reduction?

The sound goes easily through equally thick glass panels/ If you opt for 4 and 5 mm it will have a better effect. But the triple glass soundproofing is a whole another level. For example 4,5,6mm. And if the space between them is different – you’ve got an actual sound killer.

Are there problems with huge glass units?

For doors its good too use a partition that builds stability and doesn’t let the door “hang”. And more: imagine a glass showcase made of 24mm glass unit with dimensions 2000mm x 2100mm – what happens when you install it in a cold room.

The glass panels stick together

Because glass units are usually constructed in heat, the cold air in them shrinks and sucks the glass. How to avoid that? With thicker glass or with an additional vertical partition which will increase the price of your package with 2-3%.

How to recognize Ka-glass?

It is barely distinguishable of regular glass. A couple of ways to test it exist however. Place a pen against the glass.

When the glass is low emission, on the surface you will see one reflection and when the glass is regular, the reflection is double. Analogically – a flame from a lighter against the glass will show 4 flames, one of them in different color if the glass is Ka.

The qualities of the Ka – glass can be determined with the following details

  • Ka glass doesn’t allow condensation during winter.
  • When you touch the glass unit on the inside it should be relatively warm
  • Ka glass always have a small tint – greenish or brownish. Not as transparent as regular glass
  • It can also be detected with a special instrument.

Орнаментни и закалени стъкла

Ornamental glass

  • Flat with repeating elements on one or both sides achieved after decorative work
  • 4-6mm thick colored or colorless
  • if the glass is embossed on one side, the transmittance value is around 0.75, with ornaments on both sides – 0.70
  • transmittance of colored embossed glass depends on the contents, color and covering and varies between 30 and 65%
  • ornamented glass could be tempered or laminated
  • used in heat and soundproofing glass units, as a decoration could be used as a partition in homes, bars, service rooms etc.

Tempered glass

Advantages of the tempered glass


The probability of breaking tempered glass is small, but in case it does happen, it breaks down to small particles to reduce the risk of getting hurt.


Tempered glass owns a mechanical strength 4-5 times bigger than non tempered glass with the same thickness. It also has better heat resistance, withstanding temperatures from -70 to 300C

Mechanical fixing

Tempered glass has a mechanical strength and that is why it can be mechanically fixed with different fixating systems such as spider systems hinges systems and others


Tempered glass is much harder to break than float or laminated glass.


Tempered glass has the same soundproofing qualities as regular monolith glass.

Solar control

Tempered glass has the same solar parameters as normal glass


  • Doors and side panels
  • Glazing of lower floors
  • Facades
  • Railings
  • Parapets
  • Showers and paravans
  • Frameless glass doors and entrances
  • Structured glass walls
  • Glass shelters




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